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Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

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Neuroscience

Positron Emission Tomography Imaging for In Vivo Measuring of Myelin Content in the Lysolecithin Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Published: February 28th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62094

1Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine (LIM-43), Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 2Nuclear Medicine Division, Hospital Sirio-Libanes

ERRATUM NOTICE

Important: There has been an erratum issued for this article. Read more …

This protocol has the aim of monitoring in vivo myelin changes (demyelination and remyelination) by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease with expanding axonal and neuronal degeneration and demyelination in the central nervous system, leading to motor dysfunctions, psychical disability, and cognitive impairment during MS progression. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging technique able to quantify in vivo cellular and molecular alterations.

Radiotracers with affinity to intact myelin can be used for in vivo imaging of myelin content changes over time. It is possible to detect either an increase or decrease in myelin content, what means this imaging technique can detect demyelination and remyelination processes of the central nervous system. In this protocol we demonstrate how to use PET imaging to detect myelin changes in the lysolecithin rat model, which is a model of focal demyelination lesion (induced by stereotactic injection) (i.e., a model of multiple sclerosis disease). 11C-PIB PET imaging was performed at baseline, and 1 week and 4 weeks after stereotaxic injection of lysolecithin 1% in the right striatum (4 µL) and corpus callosum (3 µL) of the rat brain, allowing quantification of focal demyelination (injection site after 1 week) and the remyelination process (injection site at 4 weeks).

Myelin PET imaging is an interesting tool for monitoring in vivo changes in myelin content which could be useful for monitoring demyelinating disease progression and therapeutic response.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system, characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss1. The prognosis of this disease is variable even with advances in treatment, and it is one of the most common causes of neurological deficits in young people1. The diagnosis of MS is based on the criteria of clinical manifestation and visualization of characteristic lesions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)2,3.

Positron emission tomography (PET) can be a useful tool for in v....

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All procedures were conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the National Council for the control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA, Brazil) and were approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Research of the Medical School of the University of Sao Paulo (CEUA-FMUSP, Brazil - protocol number: 25/15).

NOTE: In this protocol, we show how to induce a lysolecithin rat model of multiple sclerosis and how to acquire and analyze the myelin PET images.

1. Lysolecithin .......

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Figure 1 shows illustrative 11C-PIB PET images with myelin changes over time. In the baseline scan, no differences can be seen in myelin content (i.e., no demyelination is present). In the 1-week time-point image, it is possible to see the focal demyelinated lesion (in the right hemisphere) as indicated by the white arrow. Images are presented in the 3 anatomical planes (coronal, axial, and sagittal) and it is possible to identify the demyelinated lesion in all of them. The 1.......

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The biggest advantage of using the lysolecithin model to study multiple sclerosis is the fast timeline for demyelination (about 1 week) and remyelination (about 4 weeks) to occur14. This model can also be induced in mice15, however, induction in rats is more advantageous for in vivo PET imaging due to the larger size of the rat brain compared to mice.

The first step of the induction model is to be extremely cautious. This model was valid.......

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β-cube equipment (Molecubes NV, Belgium) was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation, FAPESP - Brazil (#2018/15167-1). LES has a PhD student scholarship from FAPESP - Brazil (#2019/15654-2).

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Analytical Balance Marte AUWZZOD max: 220 g- min: 1 mg
Anestesia vaporizer Nanitech 15800
Beta-cube Molecubes
Bulldog clamp Stoelting 5212043P
clorexidine Rioquimica 0.5%/100 mL
Cotton swabs johnson e johnson
Dose calibrator Capintech
Drill Kinzo powertools 352901 Model Q0M-DC3C
Eppendorf tube Eppendorf 30125150 1.5 mL
Eye lubricant ADVFARMA 30049099  vaseline 15 g (pharmaceutical purity)
Fine forceps Stoelting 52102-38P
Gloves Descarpack 212101  6.5 size
Heating pad Softhear
Injection Syringe Hamilton 80314 10µ, 32ga, model 701
Insuline syringe BD 328328 1 mL insulin syringes with needle
Isoflurane Cristália 410525 100 mL , concentration 1 mL/1 mL
Ketoprofen or other analgesic Sanofi 100 mg/2 mL
lidocaine Hipolabor 1.1343.0102.001-5 2%/20mL
L-α-Lysophosphatidylcholine from egg yolk Sigma-aldrich L-4129 25 mg - ≥99%, Type I, powder
Needle holder Stoelting 5212290P
Oxygen White Martins 7782-44-7 Compressed gas
PMOD software PMOD technologies Version 4.1 module fuse it
Rat anesthesia mask KOPF Model 906
Saline Farmace 0543325/ 14-8 0.9% sodium chloride for injection, 10 mL
Scapel blades Stoelting 52173-10
Scapel handles Stoelting 52171P
Scissor Stoelting 52136-50P
Semi-analytical Balance Quimis BK-3000 max:3,100 g; min:0.2 g
shaver Mega profissional AT200 model
Stereotactic Apparatus KOPF Nodel 900
Universal holder with needle support KOPF Model 1772-F1 Hamilton support for 5 and 10 µL

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  3. Thompson, A. J., et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurology. 17 (2), 162-173 (2018).
  4. Veronese, M., et al. Quantification of C-11 PIB PET for imaging myelin in the human brain: a test-retest reproducibility study in high-resolution research tomography. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 35 (11), 1771-1782 (2015).
  5. Carvalho, R. H. F., et al. C-11 PIB PET imaging can detect white and grey matter demyelination in a non-human primate model of progressive multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 35, 108-115 (2019).
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  7. Faria, D. D. Myelin positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in multiple sclerosis. Neural Regeneration Research. 15 (10), 1842-1843 (2020).
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  9. Pytel, V., et al. Amyloid PET findings in multiple sclerosis are associated with cognitive decline at 18 months. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 39, (2020).
  10. Faria, D. d. P., et al. PET imaging of glucose metabolism, neuroinflammation and demyelination in the lysolecithin rat model for multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 20 (11), 1443-1452 (2014).
  11. Rinaldi, M., et al. Galectin-1 circumvents lysolecithin-induced demyelination through the modulation of microglial polarization/phagocytosis and oligodendroglial differentiation. Neurobiology of Disease. 96, 127-143 (2016).
  12. Faria, D. d. P., et al. PET imaging of focal demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of multiple sclerosis comparison of [C-11]MeDAS, [C-11]CIC and [C-11]PIB. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 41 (5), 995-1003 (2014).
  13. Faria, D. d. P., et al. PET imaging of focal demyelination and remyelination in a rat model of multiple sclerosis: comparison of [11C]MeDAS, [11C]CIC and [11C]PIB. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 41 (5), 995-1003 (2014).
  14. vander Star, B. J., et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Multiple Sclerosis. CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets. 11 (5), 570-588 (2012).
  15. Najm, F. J., et al. Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo. Nature. 522 (7555), 216 (2015).

Erratum

Erratum: Positron Emission Tomography Imaging for In Vivo Measuring of Myelin Content in the Lysolecithin Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis

An erratum was issued for: Positron Emission Tomography Imaging for In Vivo Measuring of Myelin Content in the Lysolecithin Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis. The citation was updated.

The citation was updated from:

de Paula Faria, D., Cristiano Real, C., Estessi de Souza, L., Teles Garcez, A., Navarro Marques, F. L., Buchpiguel, C. A. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging for In Vivo Measuring of Myelin Content in the Lysolecithin Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis. J. Vis. Exp. (168), e62094, doi:10.3791/62094 (2021).

to:

de Paula Faria, D., Real, C.C., Estessi de Souza, L., Teles Garcez, A., Navarro Marques, F. L., Buchpiguel, C. A. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging for In Vivo Measuring of Myelin Content in the Lysolecithin Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis. J. Vis. Exp. (168), e62094, doi:10.3791/62094 (2021).

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