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Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

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Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Neuroscience

A Plate-Based Assay for the Measurement of Endogenous Monoamine Release in Acute Brain Slices

Published: August 11th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62127

1Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad de Atacama, 2Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, City University of New York School of Medicine at City College, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Florida College of Medicine
* These authors contributed equally

This method introduces a simple technique for the detection of endogenous monoamine release using acute brain slices. The setup uses a 48-well plate containing a tissue holder for monoamine release. Released monoamine is analyzed by HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection. Additionally, this technique provides a screening method for drug discovery.

Monoamine neurotransmitters are associated with numerous neurologic and psychiatric ailments. Animal models of such conditions have shown alterations in monoamine neurotransmitter release and uptake dynamics. Technically complex methods such as electrophysiology, Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry (FSCV), imaging, in vivo microdialysis, optogenetics, or use of radioactivity are required to study monoamine function. The method presented here is an optimized two-step approach for detecting monoamine release in acute brain slices using a 48-well plate containing tissue holders for examining monoamine release, and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) for monoamine release measurement. Briefly, rat brain sections containing regions of interest, including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and dorsal striatum were obtained using a tissue slicer or vibratome. These regions of interest were dissected from the whole brain and incubated in an oxygenated physiological buffer. Viability was examined throughout the experimental time course, by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The acutely dissected brain regions were incubated in varying drug conditions that are known to induce monoamine release through the transporter (amphetamine) or through the activation of exocytotic vesicular release (KCl). After incubation, the released products in the supernatant were collected and analyzed through an HPLC-ECD system. Here, basal monoamine release is detected by HPLC from acute brain slices. This data supports previous in vivo and in vitro results showing that AMPH and KCl induce monoamine release. This method is particularly useful for studying mechanisms associated with monoamine transporter-dependent release and provides an opportunity to screen compounds affecting monoamine release in a rapid and low-cost manner.

A plethora of neurological and psychiatric diseases are associated with dysregulation or insufficient maintenance of monoamine neurotransmitter (dopamine [DA], serotonin [5-HT], norepinephrine [NE]) homeostasis1,2,3. These conditions include, but are not limited to, depression1,2, schizophrenia2, anxiety2, addiction4, menopause5,6,7, pain

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All experiments, including animal handling and tissue collection, were carried out in accordance with the University of Florida and the City College of New York Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), following the approved protocol 201508873 (UF) and 1071 (CCNY). For reagents and buffer please refer to the Supplementary File.

1. Prepare acute rat brain slices

NOTE: In this experiment adult male rats (250-350 g) were used. However, this s.......

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This technique describes the use of brain slices to measure the release of endogenous monoamines using HPLC with electrochemical detection based in a 48-well plate with an internal tissue holder. Experimental set up is depicted in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Initially, to ensure tissue viability by the end of the experimentation, an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole) assay was performed. Af.......

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Monoamine release measurements have been performed for years in a number of systems such as heterologous cells, neuronal cultures, brain synaptosomes, ex vivo acute brain slices, and whole animals13,20,41,42,58,64,65,66,67.......

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This work was supported by grants Fondecyt Initiation Fund N 11191049 to J.A.P. and NIH grant DA038598 to G.E.T.

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
48 Well plate NA NA Assay
Acetonitrile Fischer Scientific A998-1 Mobile Phase
Calcium Chloride Ahydrous Sigma Aldrich C1016 Modified Artifical Cerebrospinal Fluid OR Efflux Buffer
Clarity Software Anetc
Citric Acid Sigma Aldrich Mobile Phase
D-(+)-Glucose Sigma 1002608421 Dissection Buffer
DMF Sigma Aldrich D4551 MTT Assay
EDTA-Na2 Sigma Aldrich Mobile Phase
GraphPad Software Graphpad Software, Inc Statistical Analysis
Glycerol Sigma Aldrich G5516 Lysis buffer
HEPES Sigma Aldrich H3375 Lysis buffer
HPLC, Decade Amperometric Anetc HPLC, LC-EC system
HPLC Amuza HPLC HTEC-510.
L-Asrobic Acid Sigma Aldrich A5960 Dissection Buffer
Magnesium Sulfate Sigma 7487-88-9 KH Buffer
Microcentrifuge Filter Units UltraFree Millipore C7554 Assay - 6 to fit in 48 well plate
MTT Thermo Fisher M6494 MTT Assay
Nanosep VWR 29300-606 Assay; protein assay
Octanesulfonic acid Sigma Aldrich V800010 Mobile Phase
Pargyline Clorohydrate Sigma Aldrich P8013 Modified Artifical Cerebrospinal Fluid OR Efflux Buffer
Phosphoric Acid Sigma Aldrich Mobile Phase
Potassium Chloride Sigma 12636 KH Buffer
Potassium Phosphate Monobasic Sigma 1001655559 KH Buffer
Precisonary VF-21-0Z Precissonary Compresstome
Protease Inhibitor Cocktail Sigma Aldrich P2714 Lysis buffer.
Sodium Bicarbonate Sigma S5761 Dissection Buffer
Sodium Bicarbonate Sigma Aldrich S5761 Dissection Buffer
Sodium Chloride Sigma S3014 KH Buffer
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sigma Aldrich L3771 Lysis buffer
Triton X-100 Sigma Aldrich T8787 MTT Assay / Lysis buffer

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