Published: February 5th, 2021
We describe the steps for the percutaneous implantation of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), a mechanical circulatory support device. It acts by counterpulsation, inflating at the onset of diastole, augmenting diastolic aortic pressure and improving coronary blood flow and systemic perfusion, and deflating before systole, reducing left ventricular afterload.
Cardiogenic shock remains one of the most challenging clinical syndromes in modern medicine. Mechanical support is being increasingly used in the management of cardiogenic shock. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is one of the earliest and most widely used types of mechanical circulatory support. The device acts by external counterpulsation and uses systolic unloading and diastolic augmentation of aortic pressure to improve hemodynamics. Although IABP provides less hemodynamic support when compared with newer mechanical circulatory support devices, it can still be the mechanical support device of choice in appropriate situations because of its relative simplicity of insertion and removal, need for smaller size vascular access and better safety profile. In this review, we discuss the equipment, procedural and technical aspects, hemodynamic effects, indications, evidence, current status and recent advances in the use of IABP in cardiogenic shock.
Cardiogenic shock is a clinical condition characterized by decreased end organ perfusion due to severe cardiac dysfunction. The most widely accepted definition of cardiogenic shock is based on the Should We Emergently Revascularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock trial (SHOCK)1 and Intra-aortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction with Cardiogenic Shock (IABP-SHOCK-II) trial2 and includes the following parameters:
1. Systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg for ≥30 min or vasopressor and/or mechanical support to maintain SBP ≥90 mm Hg
This protocol follows the guidelines of institutional human research ethics committee.
1. Pre-insertion preparation
NOTE: The IABP is preferably inserted in the cardiac catheterization lab under fluoroscopic guidance. Bedside placement can be considered in very critical clinical situations.
Despite being used for many decades now, the evidence on IABP use has been controversial. Routine use of IABP in patients with AMI and cardiogenic shock is not recommended. The previous guidelines of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) strongly recommended the use of the IABP in patients with AMI-associated cardiogenic shock (Class I B and Class I C) on the basis of pathophysiological considerations, non-randomized trials and registry data. .......
Mechanical circulatory support is a rapidly evolving field. Even with the arrival of newer support devices, IABP remains the most widely used and simplest to deploy mechanical circulatory support device available currently25. In this article we describe in detail, the procedure for percutaneous insertion of IABP, the indications, evidence, troubleshooting and complications. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the use of IABP in AMI-related cardiogenic shock, it remains the most widely used form.......
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