JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Chemistry

Anionic Polymerization of an Amphiphilic Copolymer for Preparation of Block Copolymer Micelles Stabilized by π-π Stacking Interactions

Published: October 10th, 2016

DOI:

10.3791/54422

1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto

The key steps of living anionic polymerization of phenyl glycidyl ether (PheGE) on methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG-b-PPheGE) are described. The resulting block copolymer micelles (BCMs) were loaded with doxorubicin 14% (wt%) and sustained release of drug over 4 days under physiologically relevant conditions was obtained.

In this study, an amphiphilic copolymer that includes a core-forming block with phenyl groups was synthesized by living anionic polymerization of phenyl glycidyl ether (PheGE) on methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG-b-PPheGE). Characterization of the copolymer revealed a narrow molecular distribution (PDI < 1.03) and confirmed the degree of polymerization of mPEG122-b-(PheGE)15. The critical micelle concentration of the copolymer was evaluated using an established fluorescence method with the aggregation behavior evaluated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electronic microscopy. The potential of the copolymer for use in drug delivery applications was evaluated in a preliminary manner including in vitro biocompatibility, loading and release of the hydrophobic anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). A stable micelle formulation of DOX was prepared with drug loading levels up to 14% (wt%), drug loading efficiencies > 60% (w/w) and sustained release of drug over 4 days under physiologically relevant conditions (acidic and neutral pH, presence of albumin). The high drug loading level and sustained release is attributed to stabilizing π-π interactions between DOX and the core-forming block of the micelles.

In aqueous media, amphiphilic block copolymers assemble to form nano-sized block copolymer micelles (BCMs) that consist of a hydrophobic core surrounded by a hydrophilic shell or corona. The micelle core can serve as a reservoir for the incorporation of hydrophobic drugs; while, the hydrophilic corona provides an interface between the core and the external medium. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and its derivatives are one of the most important classes of polymers and one of the most widely used in drug formulation.1-3 BCMs have proven to be a worthy drug delivery platform with several formulations relying on this technology now in late stage clinical developme....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Figure 1
Figure 1. Schematic showing the nine key steps in the preparation of the mPEG-b-PPheGE copolymer. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.

1. Preparation of the Reagents under Dry Conditions

  1. Preparation of the reagents.
    1. Weigh 15 g of mPEG-5K.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Figure 3
Figure 3. Illustration of the anionic polymerization of phenyl glycidyl ether on mPEG macroinitiator to produce mPEG-b-(PheGE)15 for preparation of block copolymer micelles for loading of doxorubicin. The schematic illustrates the deprotonation of the hydroxyl group of mPEG using naphthalene potassium as a radical-anion, followed.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Due to the good control that anionic polymerization provides over molecular weight it is one of the most applied processes in the industry for the preparation of polymers based on oxirane monomers (PEG and PPG). Optimal and stringent conditions must be used for successful polymerization to be achieved. Rigorous purification of all reagents and appropriate apparatus are essential for the living character of the synthesis. Limitations of the current setup are mostly associated with the transfer technique that relies on can.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

CA acknowledges a Discovery grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. CA acknowledges a Chair in Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery from GSK. The authors declare no competing financial interest.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
DMEM/HAMF12 Gibco, Life Technologies 12500 Supplemented with 10%FBS. Warm in 37 °C water bath
                          
Trypsin-EDTA(0.25%) Sigma-Aldrich T4049 Warm in 37 °C water bath 
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) Sigma-Aldrich F1051 Canada origin
MDA-MB-468 cell line ATCC HTB-132
MTS tetrazolium reagent PROMEGA G111B
Phenazine ethosulfate (PES) Sigma-Aldrich P4544 >95%
mPEG5K (Mn 5400 g/mol) Sigma-Aldrich 81323 PDI=1.02
Dimethylsolfoxide (DMSO) Sigma-Aldrich D4540 >99.5%
Naphthalene Sigma-Aldrich 147141 >99%
Phenyl glycidyl ether Sigma-Aldrich A32608 >85%
Benzophenone Sigma-Aldrich 427551 >99%
Potassium Sigma-Aldrich 451096 >98%
Tetrahydrofuran Caledon Laboratory Chemicals 8900 1 ACS
Hexane Caledon Laboratory Chemicals 5500 1 ACS
Calcium hydride (CaH2) ACP C-0460 >99.5%
Diethyl Ether Caledon Laboratory Chemicals 1/10/4800 ACS
Microplate reader BioTek Instruments
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) TA Instruments Inc DSC Q100
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Waters 2695 separation moldule / 2414 detector  2 Columns: Agilent Plgel 5µm Mixed-D
NMR spectroscopy Varian Mercury 400MHz
Chloroform-d Sigma-Aldrich 151858 99.96%
DMSO-d Sigma-Aldrich 156914 99.96%
Vaccum pump  Gardner Denver Welch Vacuum Tech, Inc. Ultimate  pressure 1.10-4 torr
Drierit with indicator, 8 mesh Sigma-Aldrich 238988 Regenerated at 230°C for 2 hrs

  1. Dickerson, T. J., Reed, N. N., Janda, K. D. Soluble Polymers as Scaffolds for Recoverable Catalysts and Reagents. Chemical Reviews. 102, 3325-3344 (2002).
  2. van Heerbeek, R., Kamer, P. C. J., van Leeuwen, P. W. N. M., Reek, J. N. H. Dendrimers as Support for Recoverable Catalysts and Reagents. Chemical Reviews. 102 (10), 3717-3756 (2002).
  3. Knop, K., Hoogenboom, R., Fischer, D., Schubert, U. S. Poly(ethylene glycol) in Drug Delivery: Pros and Cons as Well as Potential Alternatives. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 49 (36), 6288-6308 (2010).
  4. Eetezadi, S., Ekdawi, S. N., Allen, C. The challenges facing block copolymer micelles for cancer therapy: In vivo barriers and clinical translation. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 91, 7-22 (2015).
  5. Attwood, D., Booth, C., Yeates, S. G., Chaibundit, C., Ricardo, N. Block copolymers for drug solubilisation: Relative hydrophobicities of polyether and polyester micelle-core-forming blocks. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 345 (1-2), 35-41 (2007).
  6. Matsumura, Y., Kataoka, K. Preclinical and clinical studies of anticancer agent-incorporating polymer micelles. Cancer Science. 100 (4), 572-579 (2009).
  7. Chan, A. S., Chen, C. H., Huang, C. M., Hsieh, M. F. Regulation of particle morphology of pH-dependent poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) micellar nanoparticles to combat breast cancer cells. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 10 (10), 6283-6297 (2010).
  8. Diao, Y. Y., et al. Doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PCL copolymer micelles enhance cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in adriamycin-resistant tumor cells. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 6, 1955-1962 (2011).
  9. Mikhail, A. S., Allen, C. Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) Micelles Containing Chemically Conjugated and Physically Entrapped Docetaxel: Synthesis, Characterization, and the Influence of the Drug on Micelle Morphology. Biomacromolecules. 11 (5), 1273-1280 (2010).
  10. Kataoka, K., Harada, A., Nagasaki, Y. Block copolymer micelles for drug delivery: design, characterization and biological significance. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 47 (1), 113-131 (2001).
  11. Nakanishi, T., et al. Development of the polymer micelle carrier system for doxorubicin. Journal of Controlled Release. 74 (1-3), 295-302 (2001).
  12. Liu, J., Xiao, Y., Allen, C. Polymer-drug compatibility: A guide to the development of delivery systems for the anticancer agent, ellipticine. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 93 (1), 132-143 (2004).
  13. Flory, P. J. Molecular Size Distribution in Ethylene Oxide Polymers. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 62 (6), 1561-1565 (1940).
  14. Kazanskii, K. S., Solovyanov, A. A., Entelis, S. G. Polymerization of ethylene oxide by alkali metal-naphthalene complexes in tetrahydrofuran. European Polymer Journal. 7 (10), 1421-1433 (1971).
  15. Crothers, M., et al. Micellization and Gelation of Diblock Copolymers of Ethylene Oxide and Styrene Oxide in Aqueous Solution. Langmuir. 18 (22), 8685-8691 (2002).
  16. Taboada, P., et al. Block Copolymers of Ethylene Oxide and Phenyl Glycidyl Ether: Micellization, Gelation, and Drug Solubilization. Langmuir. 21 (12), 5263-5271 (2005).
  17. Taboada, P., et al. Micellization and Drug Solubilization in Aqueous Solutions of a Diblock Copolymer of Ethylene Oxide and Phenyl Glycidyl Ether. Langmuir. 22 (18), 7465-7470 (2006).
  18. Attwood, D., Booth, C. . Colloid Stability. , 61-78 (2010).
  19. Le Devedec, F., et al. Postalkylation of a Common mPEG-b-PAGE Precursor to Produce Tunable Morphologies of Spheres, Filomicelles, Disks, and Polymersomes. ACS Macro Letters. 5 (1), 128-133 (2016).
  20. Chtryt, V., Ulbrich, K. Conjugate of Doxorubicin with a Thermosensitive Polymer Drug Carrier. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers. 16 (6), 427-440 (2001).
  21. Kataoka, K., et al. Doxorubicin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(β-benzyl-l-aspartate) copolymer micelles: their pharmaceutical characteristics and biological significance. Journal of Controlled Release. 64 (1-3), 143-153 (2000).
  22. Cammas, S., Matsumoto, T., Okano, T., Sakurai, Y., Kataoka, K. Design of functional polymeric micelles as site-specific drug vehicles based on poly (α-hydroxy ethylene oxide-co-β-benzyl l-aspartate) block copolymers. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 4 (4), 241-247 (1997).
  23. Lv, S., et al. Doxorubicin-loaded amphiphilic polypeptide-based nanoparticles as an efficient drug delivery system for cancer therapy. Acta Biomaterialia. 9 (12), 9330-9342 (2013).
  24. Kim, J. O., Oberoi, H. S., Desale, S., Kabanov, A. V., Bronich, T. K. Polypeptide nanogels with hydrophobic moieties in the cross-linked ionic cores: synthesis, characterization and implications for anticancer drug delivery. Journal of Drug Targeting. 21 (10), 981-993 (2013).
  25. Zhao, C. L., Winnik, M. A., Riess, G., Croucher, M. D. Fluorescence probe techniques used to study micelle formation in water-soluble block copolymers. Langmuir. 6 (2), 514-516 (1990).
  26. Wilhelm, M., et al. Poly(styrene-ethylene oxide) block copolymer micelle formation in water: a fluorescence probe study. Macromolecules. 24 (5), 1033-1040 (1991).
  27. Cammas, S., Kataoka, K. Functional poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(β-benzyl-L-aspartate)] polymeric micelles: block copolymer synthesis and micelles formation. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 196 (6), 1899-1905 (1995).
  28. Kwon, G., et al. Micelles based on AB block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(.beta.-benzyl L-aspartate). Langmuir. 9 (4), 945-949 (1993).
  29. Ahmed, F., Discher, D. E. Self-porating polymersomes of PEG-PLA and PEG-PCL: hydrolysis-triggered controlled release vesicles. Journal of Controlled Release. 96 (1), 37-53 (2004).
  30. Uhrig, D., Mays, J. W. Experimental techniques in high-vacuum anionic polymerization. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 43 (24), 6179-6222 (2005).
  31. Parker, A. J. The effects of solvation on the properties of anions in dipolar aprotic solvents. Quarterly Reviews, Chemical Society. 16 (2), 163-187 (1962).
  32. Cram, D. J. . Fundamentals o] Carbanion Chemistry. , (1965).
  33. Szwarc, M. . ACS Symposium Series. 166, 1-15 (1981).
  34. Cho, Y. W., Lee, J., Lee, S. C., Huh, K. M., Park, K. Hydrotropic agents for study of in vitro paclitaxel release from polymeric micelles. Journal of Controlled Release. 97, 249-257 (2004).
  35. Dewhurst, P. F., Lovell, M. R., Jones, J. L., Richards, R. W., Webster, J. R. P. Organization of Dispersions of a Linear Diblock Copolymer of Polystyrene and Poly(ethylene oxide) at the Air−Water Interface. Macromolecules. 31 (22), 7851-7864 (1998).
  36. Opanasopit, P., et al. Block Copolymer Design for Camptothecin Incorporation into Polymeric Micelles for Passive Tumor Targeting. Pharmaceutical Research. 21 (11), 2001-2008 (2004).
  37. Allen, G., Booth, C., Price, C. VI-The physical properties of poly(epoxides). Polymer. 8, 414-418 (1967).
  38. Jada, A., Hurtrez, G., Siffert, B., Riess, G. Structure of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer micelles in water. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 197 (11), 3697-3710 (1996).
  39. Attwood, D., Florence, A. T. . Surfactant systems : their chemistry, pharmacy, and biology. , (1983).
  40. Rekatas, C. J., et al. The effect of hydrophobe chemical structure and chain length on the solubilization of griseofulvin in aqueous micellar solutions of block copoly(oxyalkylene)s. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 3 (21), 4769-4773 (2001).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved